Brain Injury Treatment
1. How does brain Injury occur?
Brain injury can be classified as the traumatic and non-traumatic injuries based on the causes.
- Traumatic Brain Injury: Incidents such as physical trauma, traffic accidents, work accidents, firearm injuries and assault cause traumatic brain injury.
- Non-traumatic injuries: Stroke (paralysis), injuries associated with brain injury, infection of brain membrane or brain tissue infection (meningitis or encephalitis), poisoning due to stove gas, other toxic gases or lead, oxygen deprivation in the brain due to cardiac arrest (hypoxic-anoxic ischemic brain injury), degenerative neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s diseases can lead to non-traumatic brain injury.
2. Can brain injury be treated?
Yes, while deaths due to traumatic brain injury are decreasing with the advancement of surgical and emergency aid methods, losses of cognitive and physical function caused by brain injury can be treated with physical therapy and rehabilitation, robotic rehabilitation, and neurorehabilitation methods.
3. How is brain injury treated?
Due to brain damage, patients are administered comprehensive physical therapy and medical treatment program at physical therapy and rehabilitation clinics, especially in Neurorehabilitation and robotic therapy centers, immediately after brain surgeries and acute intensive care processes. Early physical therapy and rehabilitation treatment process of the patient is one of the most important factors that increase the success of regaining the abilities of walking, using hand and arm, eating, speaking, as well as the social abilities.
4. How does the patient spend 1 day in comprehensive treatment?
The treatment program to be taken by the patient is determined by the physician on a weekly basis according to the rehabilitation potential and condition. Depending on the patient’s needs, treatment can be applied at the following treatment stations.
4.1 Daily Sample Treatment Program:
5. Treatment of Brain Injury at (İstanbul Rehabilitation Academy) Neurorehabilitation Center
A patient, who is admitted to a rehabilitation center for the treatment of brain injury, is fully evaluated by a physical therapy and rehabilitation specialist. In addition, many healthcare professionals are in charge as a team for the recovery of the patient. There is no doubt that the patient is at the center of treatment, and the relatives of the patient are parts of this team. When the life-threatening aspects decrease after the brain surgery or intensive care, neurorehabilitation is started at the earliest convenience.
The patient is evaluated in terms of using the legs, mobility in bed, sitting and hand-arm use skills. Accordingly, the treatment of robotic therapy, physical therapy and occupational therapy-ergotherapy are started immediately. Early robotic walking can be a factor that accelerates the recovery of the patient. Later, the process can be carried out more effectively with the active walking robot and hand-arm robot.
The swallowing function is evaluated, necessary measures are taken, and the patient is treated.
The diet of the patient is regulated by the dietician.
Medication treatments and patient care are carried out by the rehabilitation nurses.
If there is a speech or understanding disorder, speech therapy is administered for the patient to regain communication skills.
Occupational therapy-ergotherapy is administered for the patient to regain independence in self-care and daily life activities.
An exercise program is administered by physiotherapists to ensure freedom of movement (transition from bed to chair, walking and balance). In this process, high-technology devices such as Robotic Rehabilitation and computer-aided balance devices can be utilized.
As a result of the evaluations performed by the physician, the orthosis technicians produce and check the orthoses (auxiliary devices) suitable for the patient.
Administration of treatments such as electrical stimulation and warming-cooling therapy for pain, joint stiffness or muscle strengthening are performed by the Physical Therapy technicians.
Psychiatric evaluation is performed by a specialist, and treatment is administered if necessary.
The social worker enables the patient to find a suitable job, or receive social support.
In neurorehabilitation, it is necessary to challenge the patient according to his/her capacity. In other words, the movements, which are very easy for the patient to do, and the movements, which the patient can perform almost without any effort, are of little benefit. On the other hand, forcing the patient to perform the movements that are not possible to perform with his/her current capacity can also negatively affect morale motivation, and the desired efficiency may not be obtained from physical therapy when the exercises cannot be fully performed. In other words, physical therapy exercises should be planned between these two extremes, in such a way that the patient can always be challenged and is able to perform at the same time.
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